Captain Leary

General Orders issued by Naval Governor Richard P. Leary (1 Aug. 1899 – June 1900). To learn more read entry: Guam Leaders from 1899-1904. To go back to the list of General Orders click here.


No. 1

August 16, 1899

General Order No. 1
It is prohibited to sell, issue, or in any way to dispose of any intoxicating spirituous liquors in the island of Guam, or in the contiguous waters, reefs, or lands thereof, or to any person who was not a resident of this island prior to August 7, 1899; and any person convicted of violating this order may be punished by a fine not exceeding $100 (Mexican money), or imprisonment not exceeding one month, or both, on approval of the governor, and the offender’s contraband goods shall be confiscated.

RICHARD P. LEARY, USN
Governor


No. 2

August 16, 1899

General Order No. 2
On and after September 15th, 1899, the importation of whiskey, brandy, rum, gin, aguadiente or of any other intoxicating spirituous liquor into the island of Guam or its contiguous waters, reefs or lands, is prohibited except by a special license issued by the government, and any offender against this order may be punished by fine or imprisonment, or both, upon approval by the governor, and the offender’s contraband goods shall be confiscated.

RICHARD P. LEARY, USN
Governor


No. 3

August 21, 1899

General Order No. 3
For the protection of government interests and as a safeguard for the residents of Guam against the machinations, devices and schemes of speculators and adventurers, it is hereby ordered that all persons who claim ownership of land in this island or its dependencies are prohibited from selling or transferring any portion of such property without first obtaining the consent of the government. Violation of this order may be punished by fine or imprisonment, or both.

RICHARD P. LEARY, USN
Governor


No. 4

August 25, 1899

General Order No. 4
Public Celebrations of feast days of the patron saints of villages, etc. will not be permitted. The church and its members may celebrate their religious feast days within the walls of the church, chapel or private residence, in accordance with regulations for the maintenance of the public peace, and unless, otherwise ordered, the only public holidays recognized will be Sundays, and the holidays authorized by the United States Statute Laws, and by the proclamations of His Excellency, the President of the United States.

RICHARD P. LEARY, USN
Governor


No. 5

September 15, 1899

General Order No. 5
The existing custom of concubinage, rearing families of illegitimate children, is repulsive to ideas of decency, antagonistic to moral advancement, incompatible with the generally recognized customs of civilized society, a violation of the accepted principles of Christianity and a most degrading injustice to the innocent offspring, who is not responsible for the condition of his unfortunate existence.

The aforesaid custom is henceforth prohibited, and is declared to be an offense punishable after November 3rd, 1899, by fine and imprisonment, and all persons in this island so living together out of the bonds of wedlock are commanded to procure from the Government the necessary marriage license and to be married by either the civil or church authorities, or by both, in order that their children may become legitimatized.

Until November 3rd, 1899, the license and the civil ceremony will be free.

RICHARD P. LEARY, USN
Governor


No. 6

October 4, 1899

General Order No. 6
1. Until otherwise ordered, the exportation of cattle, hogs, fowl, eggs, rice, corn and sweet potatoes from this island is hereby forbidden.

2. Articles of food may be delivered to vessels only in sufficient quantities for the subsistence of those on board during their stay in port and their passage to the next port of their destination.

3. The delivery of such articles of food to ships is prohibited without a government permit.

RICHARD P. LEARY, USN
Governor


No. 7

October 4, 1899

General Order No. 7
1. Every inhabitant, who is without a trade or habitual occupation, by means of which he is able to provide for the necessities of himself and family, must plant a quantity of corn, rice, coffee, cocoa, sweet potatoes, or other fruits and vegetables sufficient for that purpose.

2. He must also have at least twelve hens, one cock, and one sow.

3. The land necessary for the provisions of Article 1 is understood to mean that which produces with good results a single article; if it be suitable for two or more articles he must plant as great a quantity as possible, consistent with the means at his disposal, and taking into consideration what is most necessary for the maintenance of life.

4. Citizens who possess no land for planting may solicit from the government that which they may require for this object.

5. When land is one granted it must be cleared cleaned and planted within such a time as the government may deem necessary, period being indicated when the grant is made, the means of the petitioner being taken into consideration.

6. If the land be not cleared at the expiration of the time fixed when the grant was made the person receiving the grant will be considered vagrant unless he prove that he was prevented from accomplishing the work by some good cause.

7. Every part of the island may be utilized for cultivation even though the sites selected be adjacent to cattle ranches. In the latter case it will be obligatory for the planter to enclose his garden patch with fences to protect them from damage by cattle.

8. Those who, by virtue of this provision have their plantation near cattle ranches cannot claim damages for injuries caused by cattle if it can be proved that the plantations were not properly protected by enclosures.

9. Henceforth lands granted for pastures or plantations may be utilized by their possessors for stock farming or for agriculture, according to the nature of the soil, with the condition that they be properly fenced in; so that he who wishes to start a stock farm will be obliged, before taking his cattle thither, to fence in the territory where they are to graze, being responsible for the damage that may cause to the crops of neighbors for lack of fences of proper car.

Captains of towns and inspectors of crops will report monthly in writing concerning the progress of the plantations and other matters referred to this order.

RICHARD P. LEARY, USN
Governor


No. 8

November 1, 1899

General Order No. 8
1. On and after November 3, 1899, it is prohibited to import or to sell, issue, provide or in any way to dispose of any intoxicating stimulant (liquid, gelatinous or solid) in the island of Guam, or in the contiguous waters, reefs or lands thereof, to any person residing or visiting within the limits of the above stated territory, except by a special license issued by the government, and any person convicted of violating this order may be punished for the first offense by a fine, not exceeding $100 (Mexican money), or imprisonment not exceeding thirty days, or both, and for each succeeding offense the penalty may be doubled, on approval of the governor, and for each conviction the offender’s contraband goods shall be confiscated.

2. Residents or visitors in this island are forbidden to purchase or procure any intoxicating stimulant referred to in this order except by special permission of the Government, and any person who violates this order will be punished at the discretion of the local authorities.

3. Drunkenness, the chief source of all crime and trouble in this island, must and shall cease.

RICHARD P. LEARY, USN
Governor


No. 9

December 1, 1899

General Order No. 9
1. Owners of dogs must procure a license from the government, to be paid annually, beginning the 1st of January 1900.

2. Animals, large or small, must not be permitted to run loose in the roads or streets, nor to encroach on the property of neighbors.

3. Owners of animals will be held responsible for the enforcement of this order, and for its violation will be liable to damages and the confiscation of the offending animals.

RICHARD P. LEARY, USN
Governor


No. 10

January 5, 1900

General Order No. 10
1. The Spanish system of taxation on real estate is hereby abolished, and in lieu thereof a land tax shall be levied, collected and paid to the government in accordance with the following classification:

CLASS I: Lands within the limits of the towns and villages, comprising the yards surrounding the dwelling houses, or land suitable for erecting dwellings within the said limits shall be taxed at the annual rate of four pesos (Mexican) per hectare.

CLASS II: Stretches of low land along the coast suitable for raising coconuts; low fertile land suitable for raising cacao or coffee; low marshy land susceptible of irrigation and suitable for raising rice or sugar, and islands lying near the coast, shall be taxed at the annual rate of 50 cents (Mexican) per hectare.

CLASS III: Virgin forestland, with rich soil, requiring clearing, and suitable for agricultural purposes or for pasture, shall be taxed at the annual rate of 30 cents (Mexican) per hectare.

CLASS IV: Land on the mesa or uplands, not susceptible of irrigation nor within easy reach of water for stock, and suitable for tobacco and sweet potatoes or corn, shall be taxed at the annual rate of 15 cents (Mexican) per hectare.

CLASS V: Marshlands not suitable for the cultivation of rice or sugar shall be taxed at the annual rate of 10 cents (Mexican) per hectare.

CLASS VI: Sabana land with soil so thin as to permit nothing but sword grass and iron wood to grow upon it, shall be taxed at the annual rate of 5 cents (Mexican) per hectare.

2. The lack of facilities for transportation of cattle and produce making it difficult to reach the market, until otherwise ordered a reduction of twenty per centum (20 p.c.) will be allowed on the foregoing rates for the following named districts, viz: Umata, Merizo, Ynarajan, Tarafofo, Ilic, Pago and the districts of land lying to the northward and eastward of a straight line connecting Pt. Aguy and Pt. Lujuna.

3. Upon the payment of a land tax a certificate of payment will be issued and before registering a title to or transferring any portion of land the certificate of tax payment therefore must be presented for inspection as a proof of ownership.

4. The provisions of this order go into effect immediately, and the tax will be paid semi-annually, on the 30thday of June and the 31st day of December of each year.

RICHARD P. LEARY, USN
Governor


No. 11

January 19, 1900

General Order No. 11
1. It is to be regretted that the licentious and lawless conduct of some of the men belonging to this station has made it necessary to issue this order, which is intended to be a reminder that in assuming control of this island the government is pledged to fulfill its guarantee of absolute protection of all the rights and privileges of the residents of Guam, in their homes and in their lawful pursuits of life.

2. Attention is hereby called to the fact that the natives of Guam are not “damned dagoes,” nor “niggers,” but they are law abiding, respectful human beings who have been taken under the protection of the United States Government and who are as much entitled to courtesy, respect and protection of life and liberty in their homes and in their occupations as are the best citizens of New York, Washington or any other home city.

3. The several disgraceful cases of assault committed by persons attached to this station, interfering with the functions of local officials, ruthlessly destroying private property, viciously violating the sanctity of native homes, etc., were worthy only of the dastardly cowards and blackguards who were implicated in those acts, and it is deeply regretted that the government has thus far been unable to sufficiently establish the identity of the culprits and their abettors in order that they might be brought to justice.

4. For the preservation of the well-earned reputation of the American Navy as champions in succoring the needy, aiding the distressed and protecting the honor and virtue of women, it is earnestly hoped that the honorable, self-respecting portion of this command will unite their efforts in using all lawful means within their power to discourage and suppress every known tendency on the part of others to commit lawless acts that would cast dishonor and shame on the service in which we have shared the honors and trials of wars and to which we have dedicated our official lives.

RICHARD P. LEARY, USN
Governor


No. 12

January 22, 1900

General Order No. 12
1. The system of public education in this island is hereby placed under the supervision and exclusive control of the government, and all necessary expenses for the maintenance of the public school will be defrayed by the government.

2. Religious instruction in favor of any particular church or creed is prohibited and all religious training heretofore required by the late school customs or rules must be eliminated from the course of instruction, as the proper place for religious teaching is the home-circle, church, chapel or Sunday school.

3. All children between the ages of eight years and fourteen years must attend school, unless excused there from by competent authority for good reasons that interfere with their attendance.

4. Instruction in the English language will be introduced in the public schools as soon as suitable teachers can be provided, and it is expected that the present force of native teachers will cheerfully and harmoniously co-operate with the teachers of English in order that the greatest benefits may be derived by both scholars and preceptors.

RICHARD P. LEARY, USN
Governor


No. 13

January 23, 1900

General Order No. 13
1. Every adult resident of this island must learn write his or her own name before the first day of July 1900, unless prevented from doing so by physical disability.

2. The signature must be plain and legible, suitable for use when required in legal documents or commercial transactions, and must be without ornamentation, scroll or other rubrical decoration.

3. Any citizen may procure from the government a suitable sample of his or her written name for use as a copy to be imitated in practice and instruction.

4. All residents are recommended to utilize every available opportunity to learn how to read, write and speak the English language, thereby improving their own mental condition as well as preparing themselves for assisting their children who are required by law to attend school.

RICHARD P. LEARY, USN
Governor


No. 14

February 3, 1900

General Order No. 14
1. Any person attached to this command who absents himself from his ship or station without authority and lives with the natives in Chamorro fashion, which is prohibited, thereby incurs the risk of infection by dangerous fever or disease.

2. Until otherwise ordered, such person or persons, if apprehended, will be placed in quarantine a sufficient period of time to allow development of possible infection before being allowed to associate with others of the command.

3. This quarantine is a sanitary precaution required by the local government and is not to be regarded as a punishment, nor to interfere with such official action as may be deemed advisable for the punishment of offenses in accordance with the US Navy regulations.

4. Any member of the command who shall strike, maltreat, and threaten or in any other manner attempt to intimidate a resident of this island for the purpose of committing acts in violation of the law, shall be punished at the discretion of the local authorities.

5. Any native or other resident of this island who shall be convicted of harboring, protecting or assisting a refugee from a ship or station will be punished at the discretion of the local authorities.

RICHARD P. LEARY, USN
Governor


No. 15

February 3, 1900

General Order No. 15
1. All owners or claimants of land are hereby warned that in order that their ownership be recognized they must acquire legal titles to the said land and have it registered according to law in the Office of the Registrar of Lands in Agana before May 15, 1900.

2. All owners of land are hereby ordered to send to the registrar without delay a statement of the extent and nature of their land, so that they may be assessed accordingly for the tax which is to be paid the 1st of July 1900. After the 1st of July no titles will be recognized as valid unless the claimant of land wishing to prove ownership presents tax receipts for the land in question.

3. All those who wish to pay the taxes for the current half-year, beginning January 1st and ending June 30th, 1900, may do so before July 1st if they please, but any mistake in specifying the nature of the land or its extent will be subject to correction when discovered.

RICHARD P. LEARY, USN
Governor


No. 16

March 17, 1900

General Order No. 16
1. In consequence of the great need of repairs to the highways, bridges and other public works on this island, it is hereby ordered that the fifteen (15) days work required by the State, according to the law, from males between the ages of 18 and 60 years shall not be commuted or evaded by the payment of money except in extreme cases of necessity, but each male resident in good health between the ages specified must either give the labor required by law to the State or must provide and pay an able-bodied substitute who shall perform the work in his place.

2. The government may at its discretion accept ten (10) pesos annually in lieu of the fifteen (15) days work, but in all cases the service is preferred to the money, and the commutation, when allowed, will be paid semi-annually.

3. The money already paid into the treasury for the current year as commutation for labor will be returned to the persons who paid it and the fifteen (15) days labor in lieu thereof will be required according to the provisions of this order.

RICHARD P. LEARY, USN
Governor


No. 17

April 3, 1900

General Order No. 17
1. Every death occurring on this island must be immediately reported to the gobernadorcillos of the District in which it occurs, who will report it to the governor. The age and nationality of the deceased and cause and date of death must be given.

2. No burial shall take place without a written permit signed by authority of the governor.

RICHARD P. LEARY, USN
Governor


No. 18

May 12, 1900

General Order No. 18
1. Merchants and others interested in the commerce of this island are hereby reminded that the old custom of advancing money, stores or other merchandise to be paid for with personal labor or with copra or other products of the ground not in existence at the time of purchase is one of the phases of peonage, which is prohibited by law and punishable at the discretion of the local authorities.

2. Mexican coin (or its equivalent in American money) is the currency or legal tender of this island, and must be used in settling commercial transactions.

RICHARD P. LEARY, USN
Governor


No. 19

May 14, 1900

General Order No. 19
1. It has been reported that the requirements of General Order No. 12, dated January 22, 1900, concerning religious instruction, are not being complied with in some of the public schools.

2. The gobernadorcillos in the island will immediately remove all crucifixes and saint pictures from the public school rooms in their respective towns or districts and they will direct the school teachers to discontinue instruction in the church catechism and to comply strictly with the requirements of General Order No. 12.

3. Town officials will see that children of the required age are sent to school and will hold the parents or guardians responsible for the same, reporting delinquents to the government.

4. Parents, guardians and preceptors can effectively benefit themselves and the community by teaching truth, honesty and morality, and they are hereby advised to check the pernicious habit of gambling that prevails extensively among young children and to discourage the habit among adults who will be held responsible for violation of the law which prohibits gambling.

RICHARD P. LEARY, USN
Governor


No. 20

June 8, 1900

General Order No. 20
The new tariff rates on imports having gone into effect in this island, the export duty heretofore imposed on copra will discontinued from this date.

RICHARD P. LEARY, USN
Governor


No. 21

June 11, 1900

General Order No. 21
1. The males of the Caroline islanders’ community in Guam are hereby forbidden to appear in public in their customary nude condition or “string-and-pouch” decoration after the 30th day of this month, by which date they must provide themselves with suitable conventional wearing apparel.

2. Sunday “cock-fighting” is hereby prohibited in the island of Guam and its dependencies, and any person who violates this law may be punished by fine or imprisonment, or both, at the discretion of the local authorities, and the fowl shall be confiscated.

RICHARD P. LEARY, USN
Governor


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