Use of astronomy
When French scientist Louis Claude de Freycinet visited Guam in 1819 CHamorus told him that before the Spanish colonized the Marianas, CHamorus used the following calendar:
|English||CHamoru||Translation (if known)|
|January||Tumaiguini||This is the way, or like this|
|March||Umatålaf||Time to catch gatafe (a fish)|
|April||Lumuhu||Time to return, or resume one’s route|
|June||Manånaf||Signifies to go on all fours, to crawl|
|August||Tenhos||Stormy or angry|
|September||Lumåmlam||Season of lightning|
|November||Sumongsong||Season to repair the nets, stay in the village|
|December||Umayanggan||Unsettled, or weepy; season of short frequent|
|Umagåhaf||To catch shrimp|
Freycinet also noted that an examination of CHamoru words and phrases supports the idea that the islanders were knowledgeable about astronomy and maritime arts. For instance CHamorus had names for the stars.
A cave was recently found at Litekyan (Ritidian) on the north west coast of Guam that has what is believed to be an ancient star calendar painted on the wall. University of Guam Professor Rosina Ipsing believes that the arrangement of dots on the cave wall is a calendar which divides the year into sixteen months of unequal length. The months would have been based on the movement of different constellations across the night sky. The painting has 16 dots arranged both vertically and horizontally.
Researchers are interested in knowing how the ancient CHamoru people of the region gained their astronomical skills. The knowledge developed quite separately from that in ancient China or Europe as the CHamoru people have been settled in the Marianas for 3,500 years. The use of the stars to mark out the months rather than the moon is especially interesting in this respect.
Two other paintings in the cave show a stick-shaped human figure looking toward a constellation. In one, the figure points to the Southern Cross, in the other, to Cassiopeia. Being bright and easily identifiable, these constellations in the northern and southern sky would have been important markers. The calendar is similar to ones still used by navigators on the nearby island of Puluwat.
Explanation of months
The beginning of a month in the traditional CHamoru calendar is marked by the appearance of a star belonging to a particular group at about 45 degrees above the horizon just before dawn in the east. The year starts with the rising of Antares and ends with the Corona Borealis.
Because different constellations occupy a greater or lesser part of the sky, the months are not of uniform length.
Ancient CHamoru petroglyphs can also be found in several places on the island of Guam. The cave drawing most well known is at Gadao’s Cave in the southern village of Inalåhan. The sketches show human figures, animals, sea creatures and weapons. The colors are white, brown and black.
|Editor’s note:||Traditional lunar months provided by the Kumisión i Fino’ CHamoru yan i Fina’nå’guen i Historia yan i Lina’la’ i Tåotao Tåno’ (Commission on CHamoru Language and the Teaching of the History & Culture of the Indigenous People of Guam) from their “Utugrafihan CHamoru, Guåhan (Guam CHamoru Orthography),” 2020.|
For further reading
Cunningham, Lawrence J. Ancient Chamorro Society. Honolulu: Bess Press, 1992.
Freycinet, Louis Claude de. An Account of the Corvette L’Uranie’s Sojourn at the Mariana Islands, 1819. Translated by Glynn Barratt. Saipan: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Division of Historic Preservation, 2003.
Russell, Scott. Tiempon I Manmofo’na: Ancient Chamorro Culture and History of the Northern Mariana Islands. Saipan: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Division of Historic Preservation, 1998.