In 1960, the United Nations passed a Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, proclaiming the necessity of bringing an end to colonialism. The Declaration compelled colonizing nations to figure out what to do with their territories. For the United States, this included Guåhan and the Trust Territory of Pacific Islands (TTPI) in Micronesia.

Nine years later the First Guam Constitutional Convention was held to review and propose revisions to the Organic Act. From 1 June 1969 to 29 June 1970, 43 elected delegates participated in the convention and recommended 34 changes to the Organic Act of 1950. No action, however, was taken on the recommendations.